When we speak of a certain quantity of money, it may either be a gain or a loss, a receipt or a payment. Gains and loss are so related that if we gain as much as we lose the effect on our stock is nothing. Hence a quantity of money forms a gain is said to be opposite in character to a quantity which forms a loss.

## Classification of Numbers

Following are the types of numbers. Natural numbers, Whole numbers, Prime numbers, Composite numbers, Integers, Rational Numbers, Irrational number, Real Number etc

## More on Complex Numbers

In this chapter we shall cover advanced topics under complex numbers.

## Combination

A combination is a grouping or selection of all or part of a number of things without reference to the arrangement of the things selected.

## Permutation

A permutation is an arrangement of all or part of a number of things in a definite order. For example, the permutations of the three letters a, b, c taken all at a time are abc, acb, bac, bca, cba, cab.

## Logarithm

a and M be two real numbers such that a>0 and not equal to 1and M > 0. A real number x is called “the logarithm of M to the base a” if a to the power of x is equal to M.

## Quadratic Equations

An equation of the form ax^2 + bx +c = 0 (a being nonzero) in which 2 is the highest power of x and a,b,c are any three numbers free from x is called an equation of second degree or a quadratic equation in x.

## Complex Numbers

Real numbers are not sufficient for solving all algebraic problems. Hence, a new set of numbers which are different from real numbers were invented and termed as complex numbers or imaginary numbers.

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